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Moscow is situated on a sweeping curve of the Moskva River. From the very start it was built as a fortress city. Starting in the 12th century, Moscow survived devastations wrought by neighbouring principalities, Tartar invasions as well as those wrought by Ivan the Terrible. The city finally achieved relative political stability under the Romanovs but Peter the Great, enamoured with all that was European, later abandoned Moscow to declare St. Petersburg the new capital.
Throughout the centuries of its existence, the Moscow Kremlin has been the witness of many famous and tragic events of our history. Enemy guns rattled at its walls, celebrations and revolts took place. Now the Moscow Kremlin is one of the largest museums of the world. State regalia of Russia, invaluable icons, treasures of Russian tsars are stored in the Kremlin chambers and cathedrals.
Spasskaya Tower is considered to be the most beautiful and most harmonious tower of the Kremlin. It was constructed by the architect Pietro Antonio Solari in 1491. From time immemorial, the Spasskaya gate was the main smart entrance to the Kremlin. It was especially esteemed among people and was considered to be sacred. It was forbidden to pass astride through the Spasskaya gate.
Moscow, like the rest of the country, has a range of extreme climatic conditions from intensely cold winters to swelteringly hot summers. From November to April the temperature rarely rises above 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and snow is common. However in July and August it can reach the mid 30 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit).The best advice is to keep checking the weather information below and be prepared!
Today, in Moscow, you can find absolutely everything in the stores. Everything that is in New York or any big city, is in Moscow too. Walking along the main streets in downtown you can find many fancy shops and boutiques everywhere. Inside you will find that many shops have very high and sometimes ridiculous prices for their goods.
Yes, undoubtedly, it is very important to visit the world famous department store on Red Square--GUM. IT has A very long history from the 19th century. It is a stylish and impressive building with a glass roof. But looking at their prices you may decide to buy only a couple of small souvenirs here for your memories about this store; drink some coffee in the cafe here looking around at the beautiful fountain in the middle, old style walls, and lighted signs of familiar boutiques.